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And thats not a far-fetched analogy, because many of these writers treat Little Richard as though he were the Prime Mover. For example, the preface of a book which takes its title from Richards greatest song, Nik Cohns Awopbopaloobop Alopbamboom: The Golden Age of Rock, brims with all the promise of the books title. Growing up in the Protestant section of Derry in Ireland, Cohn writes that one eve- ning Id gone astray, found myself on the fringes of Bogside, the Catholic slum.
Watched the local teen hoods Teddy Boys, they were called with their duckass haircuts and drainpipe jeans, jiving in plain day. Had my rst glimpse of sex, and danger, and secret magic. And I have never been healthy since. But while Cohns book is named after and its last words are the hook of the song that changed his and everybody elses world, for crissakes, its chapters are devoted to Bill Haley, Elvis Presley, Eddie Cochran, the Beatles, the Stones.
And what are those contributions? In a nutshell, they come down to Tutti Frutti, the one song that hit young Nik Cohn like a bolt from the blue.
The subtitle of my book is really a co-title: all the parts that make up rock n roll had been moving toward critical mass for years, but when Little Richard shouted, A-wop-bop-a-loo- mop, a-lop-bam-boom, suddenly, to quote the Book of Genesis, there was a rmament in the midst of the waters. Its a huge song musically, but its also a seminal text in American culture, as much as Uncle Toms Cabin, Song of Myself, and the great documents of the Civil Rights era are.
In a sense, its Americas Other National Anthem. Consider where Tutti Frutti came from. You can trace the roots of rock n roll back to every branch on the musical tree, especially gospel, but to most people who were listening to the radio inrocks most immedi- ate ancestors were pop and rhythm n blues. Rock combines the two, according to Belz, taking its subject matter from pop and its style from rhythm n blues, and here you might think of the Beatles She Loves You Or Tutti Frutti.
Boone tried to make his version of Tutti Frutti a totally pop treatment and thus a silly song in every way. Yet its rhythms give it urgency, and some of its lyrics even give it a sexual urgency the gal named Sue knows just what to do. Art results when the deliberate is transformed by the accidental, and what begin deliberately in the New Orleans recording session that produced Tutti Frutti was transformed by a series of happy accidents Ill describe in detail in Chapter 3.
All new music changes the world, but no music changed the world the way this song did. If its at the center of this book, thats because its at the center of our culture. Why havent more cultural historians realized this? Nik Cohn is not the only one to jump back like Moses after God handed him the Ten Commandments and say, I dont think I want to go up on that mountain any more. Youd think a book with a title like William E.
Studwell and D. Lonergans The Classic Rock and Roll Reader: Rock Music from Its Beginnings to the Mids would give ample or at least adequate attention to the creator of rock n roll or, at the very least, toss him and his music a paragraph or two. Instead, the song that changed music forever is in the Novelty Songs chapter along with Sammy Davis, Jr. Can you imag- ine? The rock howler out of Macon on the same plane as three musical rodents.
Another classic text, The Story of Rock mentioned above, was informed, helpful, and, in the end, disap- pointing because it, like most works of its kind, pays so little attention to the man who started it all.
Little Richard is mentioned ten times, though almost always in a list including Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Ray Charles and other pioneers. And Tutti Frutti is mentioned exactly once as a song Pat Boone covered. Little Richard, where are you? The answer is that he is right there in front of us where apparently we cant see him. Liberace is their rst choice, but hes suffering from food poisoning, so they go with Little Richard the real Little Richard, as it turns out, but the couple cant tell.
And theres a chapter on Little Richard in Zell Millers They Heard Georgia Singing, a guide to the many musi- cians the Peach State has produced, but hes not in the rst place most people turn to in a reference book: the index. One wonders if Miller has an agenda here. After all, as the governor of Georgia, he became so sold on the then-popular idea that classical music improves brain development that he mandated the distribution of free copies of a Sony CD called Build Your Babys Brain Through the Power of Music to new parents.
Canon in D Major, does Mom really want him to pop out of his playpen like a piece of burnt toast when he hears a crazy guy shout A-wop-bop-a-loo-mop, a-lop- bam-boom? And so it goes. After Greil Marcus, Peter Guralnick is my favorite music writer. As youll see in the pages that follow, theres no way I can repay Guralnick for what I learned from Sweet Soul Music and his other books.
The rock press isnt much better. The Rolling Stone issue immediately following the Grammy Awards covered the event in three different features: an analysis of the shows ratings not high, in what the writer called a divided musical culturea photo collection, and a column on dominant personalities that mentioned Alicia Keys, Kanye West, Kid Rock, Lil Wayne, Amy Winehouse and Cyndi Lauper but not Jerry Lee Lewis and Little Richard, both of whom performed on the live broadcast.
The one notable exception to the print medias neglect of Little Richard is the cover story of the June issue of the British magazine Mojo. The story is titled Records That Changed the World. The lines meet in a full-gure representation of Little Richard looking like the love child of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and some Hindu temple goddess.
And the list ends with the proclamation In the Beginning was the Word and goes on to explain that the word was A-wop-bop-a-loo-mop-a-lop-bam-boom! A torrent of lth wailed by a bisexual alien, Little Richards Tutti Frutti smashed down the doors of culture and ushered in an attitude we still call rock n roll.
Later in the article, Tutti Frutti is described as the biggest bang in the history of pop music. So of all the mags out there, Mojo got Little Richard right. Otherwise, zip. But sometimes thats the way it is for the ones who matter most. As it says in the liner notes to the Robert Johnson album King of the Delta Blues Singers, Robert Johnson appeared and disappeared, in much the same fashion as a sheet of newspaper twisting and twirling down a dark and windy midnight street.
The bigger the prole, the harder it is to see. Who knows who Shakespeare is, or Jesus? Also, Little Richard himself hasnt exactly stayed in one spot and made it easy for rock historians to shine on him the light of his own importance. And, as my own experiences with him will show, he remains maddeningly elusive, even to those who only want him to take his proper place on the cultural stage.
Nor has he tended his own legacy with much care. At one point, the entertainer began to yank one typically outrageous costume after another off a room-long rack and toss them at Johnson, who said, Wait, wait I need to know when you wore this and where, to which Little Richard replied, How would I know?
Nor had he saved any posters, yers, photos, contracts: none of that. Johnson said that the country singer Travis Tritt, also a Hall of Fame inductee, had told him recently that he always walked through the airport with his cowboy hat in one hand and a briefcase full of business papers in the other.
But like Oscar Wilde, when Little Richard goes through Customs, apparently he has nothing to declare but his talent. As you might expect, the rockers Little Richard inu- enced know how much they owe him. Thats rock and roll. Thats the real shit.
When you listen to him now and you go back to those days, its Jerry Lee and Little Richard. Thats what it is. Elvis was comin in a distant third when you get right down to it. In the spring ofI handed out a questionnaire to two groups of students asking basic questions. A couple of students werent quite sure who he was or confused him with Chuck Berry or Bo Diddley, but most had a strong visual sense of the Little Richard persona, though they might have gotten that from the GEICO commercial available on YouTube as much as any other source.
Most stu- dents associated him more with rock, soul or r n b than pop. Many knew that he was responsible for what they described as the revival of spirit in music, the rebirth of piano playing, a new style and sound and massive vocal screeches. Oddly, though, in a way, accurately, two students described him as having a positive post-Elvis inuence and reappropriating the blackness that was spirited away by the King oddly, because Little Richard was already on the scene before Elviss heyday; accurately, because the masses who were called back to their own bodies by Elviss televised wrigglings later came to recognize rocks real pioneers.
The best response to the question How did he affect the music that followed his? That numbers a little low, but to paraphrase the Who, the kids all right. I was heartened to see that my students knew that Little Richard was at least as important as a Founding Father as Elvis and probably more so. If I had asked students then who started rock, most would have said Elvis. True, Elvis became the King, but mainly because he was white and tamed by producers and thus sellable not only to the kids but also the parents who paid for their records.
And as Ill argue later, while Elvis was gutted by management all too soon, he did per- form one act that no one else could have, which is that, by wriggling until it looked as though his pants were about to y off, he gave back to kids the bodies their parents, pastors and principals had tried to take away. Well over- look for the moment the impossibility of Little Richard or any other African American being permitted to bust a sexy move in the early days of network television.
So its not that I think white guys didnt contribute. In fact, for my money, the pure crazy manifestation of everything thrilling in rock n roll is summed up in the person of Jerry Lee Lewis, described on the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame web site as the wild man of rock and roll, embodying its most reckless and high-spirited impulses.
On such piano-pounding rockers from the late Fifties as Whole Lotta Shakin Goin On and Great Balls of Fire, Lewis combined a ferocious, boogie-style instrumental style with rowdy, uninhibited vocals. Jerry Lee said this of Elvis: Elvis was my friend and youd better believe it. Elvis Presley loved Jerry Lee Lewis. Elvis was a good person we had a good time together. We were two of the same kind.
But then he added, Elvis opened the door, man, but he couldnt follow Jerry Lee on stage no siree. Ive seen the Killer tear up more than one concert hall, and hes right about that. Of course, you could also argue that the Prime Mover of rock is Chuck Berry, of whom it is said on the Rock Hall web site, While no individual can be said to have invented rock and roll, Chuck Berry comes the closest of any single gure to being the one who put all the essential pieces together.
Or, as John Lennon said, If you tried to give rock and roll another name, you might call it Chuck Berry. And lets not forget Fats Domino, who said, Well, I wouldnt want to say that I started it, but I dont remem- ber anyone else before me playing that kind of stuff. I know that. King, Willie Nelson and Robert Plant, among others. Now there was a Hurricane Katrina tie-in; for a while, the Fat Man was thought to have perished in the storm along with nearly 2, others as George W.
Bushs government looked the other way, and both concert and album raised funds for the hurricanes victims. Still, wheres the Little Richard tribute? Sir Paul McCartney played on the Fats Domino album; youd think hed do the same for a musician whose songs he and the other boys from Liverpool opened their shows with and who inuenced the Beatles more than anyone else.
Okay, maybe Im being too hard on public opinion here. Introduction Nor can he play or write songs like Chuck or channel Satan on stage like Jerry Lee or sell sweetness the way Fats does. But to paraphrase Isaiah Berlin who himself bor- rowed from the Greek poet Archilochusthe world is divided into foxes and hedgehogs; the fox does many things, and the hedgehog does one Big Thing.
And Little Richards Big Thing is that, under extraordinary circum- stances that will be recounted in detail in Chapter 3 of this book, on the afternoon of September 14,he recorded a song called Tutti Frutti.
From start to n- ish, the song lasts 2 minutes and 25 seconds, yet, in the words of Keith Richards, it was as if, in a single instant, the world changed from monochrome to Technicolor. Much has been written about the transition of rhythm and blues into rock n roll, the term coined by disc jockey Alan Freed to describe the irrepressible music that caught the fancy of white teenagers in the middle f- ties, write Grace Lichtenstein and Laura Dankner.
What was the first rock n roll song? Thomasville, Georgia told me in one of my interviews with them: when in doubt, trust your ears. If you do that, you just may agree that no song has had the impact of Tutti Frutti on fans and musicians alike, and no other song has ooded the world with so much bright color.
Or so says Keith Richards. What I say is this: for cen- turies, everything in human history churned slowly towards Cosimo Matassas tiny recording studio in New Orleans on that fateful day in the middle of the century.
There, all we know on earth and all we need to know about love, freedom, desire and the need to boogie come together for less than 3 minutes.
Then out of this brief moment ows everything we know and want and ever will, just as the lives were living came from a cosmic bang that was as powerful as it was brief. In shaping this book, Ive replicated that pattern: its middle chapter, the one on Tutti Frutti, is the shortest, and in this way it divides the world into two eras, the one that came before that song and the one you live in now.
I want Little Richard to be seen for who he is. Long before I even thought about writing a book like this, I wrote I hear America singing, and it sounds like Little Richard.
To me, hes a way of looking at the world. Now I get to make good on that premise in this book. Tutti Frutti occupies a nite space smack in the middle of our huge-ass Crab Nebula of a culture. The world was one color, and now its every color. Little Richard seems to be tugging on the robe of the God he worships when he says I am the only thing left, but hes right. The method I use here is similar to one I have used in my other non-ction books. I began by reading every- thing that has been written about my subject, listening to every available recording, and visiting the places and talking to the people most closely connected to him; as Charles Nicholl says in his biography The Lodger Shakespeare, We are in search of facts but we also listen to the whispers.
After that, I did my best to write a com- pelling narrative, one that has the sweep of history as well as the immediacy of a newspaper headline. Chapter 1 will portray Little Richard in the days before his showbiz career, and here the emphasis is on a magi- cal place called Macon, a place I call Everybodys Other Home Town.
The second chapter will continue the story of the Macon days but in the context of that invisible republic that Greil Marcus calls the Old, Weird America and the songs that rise from it like mist in a moonlit swamp. The third and shortest chapter concentrates on Tutti Frutti, after which the book opens out again. Chapter 4 treats Little Richards impact on the then-new teen culture that has shaped the world we live in now, and the fth and nal chapter describes his place in history and his present-day prole as established by the show- biz template he created, the stories his intimates tell, his movie roles and his still-sizzling concerts.
I do so here because, for the generations that didnt grow up with him, lm is the best way to show his and the worlds long, strange climb out of a segregated past and into a more enlightened day. In the course of his career, Little Richard and associ- ates the women and men who co-wrote songs with him, his producers and fellow musicians put on a clinic in songwriting, showing how the words are put together and the music made to support or slide by them.
That process, too, is examined here. No one can teach you how to write a masterpiece, but anyone can learn from a close look at a songwriting process that changed music forever. I met a woman in Charlottesville, Virginia recently who didnt know who Little Richard was, but shes the only one.
On the other hand, Ive met a lot of people who think they know who Little Richard is, but beyond a few songs and a sense of what he looks like, they might not know much more than the Charlottesville woman. What Im doing here is not telling the story of his life again the Charles White biography already does that job well but describing the world before Tutti Frutti and then after, a world in which we no longer see race or religion or sex or business or entertainment or our own daily lives in the same way, and all because of one 2-minute-andsecond song.
Thats asking a little too much, though, given how widely musical tastes vary. But at least I can give Little Richard the place in history he deserves. Now a quasar is among the most distant yet lumi- nous bodies in the universe, an extremely old celestial object whose power output is nonetheless several thou- sand times that of our present galaxy.
If you love pop or rock or hip-hop or just about any kind of music thats out there today, Little Richard is the reason why. And if you think the best world is one in which black folks and white ones live and work together and learn from each other along with Hispanics and Asians and Arabs and peoples of every race, creed and color, well, Little Richards behind that, too. In addition to the other nicknames he has, he should also be called the Integrator. If this book were a car, lets put it this way: it wouldnt be one of those little three-wheeled numbers that are just right for European streets, or even a Volkswagen bug.
Nor would it be a hybrid or any car of recent vintage, for that matter, the kind thats all computers, that you cant crawl under the hood of and work on with a set of socket wrenches. Itd be a hooptie an Oldsmobile 88, say. The 88 was also a foot-long German anti-tank gun that red 88 mm rounds over a 6-mile distance and scared the bejeezus out of the Brits during the desert war; like Little Richard, it made a hell of a lot of noise.
Eighty-eight is also the number of keys on Little Richards instrument of choice, as well as the exact amount of money he made me pull out of my wallet the rst time I spoke with him more on that in Chapter 1. But this Olds would have gone through a lot of cus- tomizing. Actually, the Life and Times is an autobi- ography of sorts. White provides the embroidery that connects the sections, but most of the book consists of recollections by the Georgia Peach himself, making it a one-of-a-kind resource that rings not only with the facts of the speakers life, which he reveals with a startling lack of self-consciousness, but also with Little Richards greatest strength, which is his idiom.
After all, it aint what you do, as he sings in one of his songs, its the way how you do it. Then again, the original version of his book dates fromwhen it may have been too soon to see what a world-changer Little Richard is.
Still, the debt I and all fans owe Charles White is immense. His book doesnt gure on every page of mine or even in every chapter, but if Im driving this thing and youre going along for the ride, sufce it to say that The Life and Times of Little Richard is there between you and me and the road. And thats just the chassis. The design is by Greil Marcus, the rock critic who shows you how much you can get out of the music if youre willing to stray beyond the notes.
That America, the one of medicine shows and bootleggers and itinerant bluesmen trying to stay one step ahead of the sheriff, is the one that Little Richard grew up in, that shaped his stage act and his songs, and that is still alive today, if you know where to look for it.
I do, and Ill tell you. I rely on The Old, Weird America and other such masterful books by Marcus as Mystery Train and Lipstick Traces as I argue, like him, that every culture has two histories: the public one thats contained in ofcial documents and the secret history that can be glimpsed in song lyrics and movies but also jokes and tall tales, not to mention the things people say to each other on street corners at night and the sound a train makes as it takes your baby to another town.
Then theres the upholstery in this car as well as the pun is unavoidable the headliner. Race, gender, sexuality, history, family dynamics, commerce, technol- ogy, art of every kind: every discipline in the curriculum carpeted the oors of this vehicle, covered its seats, lined its ceiling.
Music is the main thing here, but its not the only thing. As far as the fuel I used to push this project along, thats easy. I lled the tank with Little Richards music, of course, but also his high-octane live performances, lm and video appearances, interviews, conversations.
The rst time I heard Little Richards actual voice, I was in a room with his cousin in Macon when he called from Baltimore, and take my word for it: the phone wasnt necessary. The way Little Richard was yelling, he might as well have just stuck his head out the window in a city miles to the north and saved on the toll charges.
Hear his voice once, and youll hear it forever; if you need help in that department, then for my money Id say get the Little Richard Greatest Hits Recorded Live, which captures a galvanic stage performance at the Okeh Club in Hollywood, California. I hope you hear that voice in these pages. Finally, there are all the appointments, all the chrome and glass, yeah, but also the knobs and buttons that turn on the engine and the lights and the radio and Album everything work.
Ruth also put me on to a great ball of re, Lisa Love, executive director of the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, and her sidekick, Joseph Johnson, the Halls curator and himself an archive of music lore. Kenneth Rollins of the Douglass Theatre, where Otis, Richard, James Brown and dozens of others in the rich Middle Georgia music scene got their start, introduced me to Newton Collier, former trombone player for Sam and Dave, companion on many a club crawl and my secret weapon as I pierced the veil to see what was really going on in Macon past and present.
Seaborn Jones, poet and man of parts, paints a portrait of Little Richard unlike any other; thanks to Seaborn, I got to know a man few do.
Alan Walden, who, with his brother Phil, is an indelible part of music history, is a mesmerizing raconteur; his wife, Tosha, and daughters, Jessica and Georgeanna, get points for making sure that Alan stopped shing long enough to tell me his stories of the old days and the ones to come.
Generally, Ive found that while stars are unapproachable fans bore them, for the most part, and stalkers frighten them the people who knew and worked with them are right there in the phone book and eager to talk. So you cant pick up the phone and talk to Little Richard, but you can call Cosimo Matassa in New Orleans, and hell tell you what happened on September 14,when he recorded Tutti Frutti in a cramped studio on Rampart Street in New Orleans.
Historian Cameron Pennybacker sent me books and schooled me in the dark days of Macons racial history. Maconites Judson Mitcham, Phil Comer and Rob Apsley egged me on; eld recording geniuses Jim and Doug Oade explained the technical side of things more than once and taught me that, as far as technol- ogy goes, the only rule is trust your ears. Willie Ruth Howards grandson, Vincent Harrison, preached the gos- pel to me when I was visiting her and pointed out that, like LP Richard, Jesus, too, came from a small town.
My masters at various journals and newspapers have made it possible for me to publish parts of this book as I went along and even pick up an occasional check to help with expenses. Summers, travel editor of the Washington Post, com- missioned a piece called Good Golly! Its Macon Music that served as an entree to life in that town like no other. Reid Davis, editor of Georgia Music, gives me yummy assignments on Little Richard and other key gures in the Georgia scene, and Susan Hahn of TriQuarterly has let me write as much as I want about rock in general and Little Richard in particular.
Rip Lhamon is the author of Deliberate Speed: The Origins of a Cultural Style in the American s, a book to which anyone who has writ- ten about this period is indebted, as am I.
Mac Craig is one of the many people who told me about something I didnt know existed; in Macs case, its the episode of the Bill and Teds Excellent Adventures cartoon series in which Mozart time travels to Macon to jump-start Little Richards career. My wife, Barbara Hamby, is a writer as well, and she loves words and music of all kinds as much as I do. Ive had to jump down more than one rabbit hole as I wrote this book, and shes always there when I pop back to the surface.
There are Pentecostals and moonshiners in her family tree. Her grandfather is said to have been strangled by her grandmothers brothers, and some think the old lady herself was in on it; the coroners verdict was heart attack, but the rst person to see his body said Grandpa had grape jelly stains around his neck. Speciaal voor 64 Staalplaat Soundsystem experimenteel minimal music Geert-Jan Hobijn elektronica Carlo Crovato elektronica Carsten Stabenow elektronica Geert-Jan Hobijn is een van de oprichters van het internationaal vermaarde Staalplaat, een winkel in Amsterdam en later ook in Berlijn voor alle vormen van experimentele muziek.
In de beginfase is de cassette de belangrijkste geluidsdrager waarop de muziek wordt verspreid, totdat in de tweede helft van de jaren tachtig de compact disc opmars maakt. Het Nederlandse filiaal van Staalplaat start aan de 65 Moke verantwoordelijk voor de videoclip bij het nummer. Op vrijdag 30 mei staat Moke op Pinkpop. Ter gelegenheid van Pinkpop verschijnt een speciale festivaleditie van het debuutalbum Shorland met naast het studioalbum een dual disc met audio-opnamen van een optreden in Paradiso en remix door Don Diablo plus een dvd met naast videoclips ook live-opnamen tijdens Noorderslag.
Moke tekent in oktober in Hamburg een licentiecontract met de Duitse vestiging van de 66 Cobla La Principal d'Amsterdam wordt eens per jaar uitgereikt aan een persoon of instelling die zich sterk maakt voor 'het scheppen, verspreiden en bevorderen van symfonische of 'vrije' muziek voor cobla. De band krijgt de prijs vanwege 'haar waardevolle, onophoudelijke bijdrage aan de muziek voor cobla en de internationale verspreiding daarvan.
De Japanse interesse komt ook tot uiting in de jaarlijkse tournees waarbij de groep grote zalen bespeelt. Foggo verhuist naar Antwerpen. In juni verschijnt het album You Shot Me, een twaalf nummers tellende, stevig klinkende ska-plaat.
Na een presentatie in te Tilburg volgt een Europese promotie-tournee en een optreden in de Grolschtent tijdens Lowlands. Op het tiende album High Acres staat zowel een nummer over Ad van Meurs' grootvader het titelnummer als een liedje over zijn kleinzoon Jump Over The Wall. De door Ankie Keultjes geproduceerde cd bevat bijdragen van gitarist Stephan Jankowski en percussionist Osama Mileegi. De cd Break Of Dawn bevat 'transatlantische folk' van Ad van Meurs en Ankie Keultjes samen met de 70 Katja Schuurman haar een rijverbod van drie maanden op Katja speelt een rol in de televisieserie Westenwind en neemt het initiatief voor het benefietconcert Line Up For Amnesty, waaraan veel bekende Nederlandse bands en artiesten hun medewerking verlenen.
Ze wil zich weer op het zingen gaan richten. Op 10 juli presenteert zij met een bungy- jump in Amsterdam haar eerste Engelstalige single Spaceship. Da Partycrasher Pt. Dirty Dutch Propaganda! Dikker schrijft daarnaast ook een paar oorspronkelijke composities voor het project.
Loek Dikker is als bestuurslid verbonden aan het Muziekinstituut MultiMedia. MiMM is een initiatief van een aantal componisten en organisatoren uit de culturele sector. Van de elpee Onbeperkt Houdbaar verschijnt het nummer 't Was Grandioos als 25e single van de groep. De elpee Badmuts Verplicht bevat liedjes over de regio Rijnmond. De single Santa Claus 'Raus, een loflied op Sinterklaas en dus een anti-kerstman lied haalt de Britse en Canadese media.
Arie van der Graaf brengt een eerste instrumentale solo-cd uit: Arie's Koffie. Af en toe krijgen de Stroopwafels muzikale ondersteuning van Cees Pons zang, gitaar en Bob Struik gitaar. De groep 77 Mecano en heeft plaatsgemaakt voor een bijzonder gevarieerd album. Sommige nummers doen denken aan het Amerikaanse gezelschap Tuxedomoon, en er is verwantschap met minimale neo-klassieke muziek.
Een opvallend nummer is Besprizorni, dat gedeeltelijk in het Russisch en in het Frans wordt gezongen. Deze levert hem een hit op met de single Streetbeats, ook wordt hij wereldberoemd in Japan. Naar aanleiding van het Japanse succes maakt Dulfer speciaal voor de Japanse markt Hyperbeat, wat zijn sterstatus daar nog eens onderstreept. De plaat wordt in Japan de best verkopende instrumentale plaat van het jaar.
In Japan ontvangt hij een Golden Disc Award. Het album Express Delayed samen met organist Herbert Noord verschijnt op cd. Dulfer gaat voor het eerst op tournee door Japan. De singles worden met name verkocht speciale dubbelshows. De video bij het nummer Black Cat John Brown, opgenomen tijdens een kleedkamerconcert, is in september een hit op de populaire videowebsite YouTube. Binnen een week hebben meer dan Jasperina de Jong brengt verschillende platen uit waarvoor hij liedjes componeert.
Hij schrijft ook liedjes voor Rob de Nijs en Paul de Leeuw. In is Stokkermans juryvoorzitter tijdens het Grand Gala du Disc. Net als op eerdere soloplaten speelt hij op Idylle bewerkingen uit de klassieke muziek van componisten als Johann Sebastian Bach o. Voorloper van Morzelpronk.
In mei wordt Lion van Soeren vervangen door Pieter Mulder. Aan het begin van de zomer maken zowel Emmer als Walhof geen onderdeel meer uit van de bezetting. Een tournee door Nederland samen met het Engelse Section 25 vindt in oktober plaats. Bij het novemberblad van Vinyl zit een flexi- disc met daarop het nummer Een Kus en de track Son staat op de Plurex-verzamelaar Hours.
Draaikonten is de zesde langspeelplaat van het Simplisties Verbond en tevens hun eerste compact disc. December: een hele avond gevuld met het Gala Van Het Gouden Hoofd, een parodie op de liefdadigheidsakties. Van Kooten schrijft Modermismen en Hedonia.
Galatournee met Purper. Presentatie Grand Gala du Disc volgens Groothuizen een van haar weinige minder geslaagde avonden. Presentatie van het programma Sex Met Angela, een jongerenprogramma over sexualiteit.
Presentatie Sporters Voor Sporters. Voor de organisatie Memisa werkt Groothuizen mee aan de documentaire Habari Angela over de aidspreventie in Tanzania. Het nummer Click Clack wordt vervolgens een hit. Na zijn overwinning brengt hij drie albums en meerdere singles uit om zich vervolgens te richten op een studie technische natuurkunde.
Een tournee met de Britse groep The Membranes volgt, hiervan wordt een aantal optredens opgenomen. The Ex werkt intensief aan de dubbelelpee Too Many Cowboys die gedeeltelijk bestaat uit live-werk en verder uit studionummers waarop het experiment wederom niet geschuwd wordt. Zo is er ruime aandacht voor gitaarnoise, maar er zijn ook sfeervolle instrumentals. Bijgevoegd is een flexi- disc met het nummer Wie Vermoordde Hans K.?.
Het duo wordt in,en tijdens de Party Awards door het publiek verkozen tot Beste Party Act van Nederland. De demo levert optredens op en wordt lovend ontvangen door Greg Shaw, de man achter de legendarische serie sixties garagecompilaties Pebbles. Eric Geevers wordt gevraagd om toe te treden tot de Amerikaanse band The Fuzztones, maar voor de gitarist naar Los Angeles kan afreizen raakt hij zwaargewond bij een brand in zijn woning. Hij wordt een paar weken kunstmatig in coma 93 Francien van Tuinen Holiday voor publiek.
Een logisch gevolg is dat ze naar het Conservatorium in Groningen gaat, waar ze Album) afstudeert. De toon van de muziek is melancholisch en de uitvoering vaak krachtig.
Erna Spoorenberg werd geprezen om haar lichte, zuivere, hoge sopraanstem die ze combineerde met een feilloze techniek en een uitstekende dictie. Het grootste deel van haar jeugd woont ze in Brabant. Thuis is er 96 The Nitwitz eerste single uit. The Nitwitz vallen op door snelle, vrolijke punk. Zelf noemen de bandleden de Amerikaanse Dickies als voornaamste invloed.
Na een tweede single verschijnt in de mini-lp Wielingen Walgt. Het strijdlustige hoesontwerp is van de hand van tekenaar Peter Pontiac. In datzelfde jaar verschijnt de eerste en enige 97 Allez Mama traditionals. Een jaar na het debuut verschijnt het meer ingetogen tweede album Zi Zo Zydeco. Savoy tourt in het seizoen mee met Allez Mama. A three-decker Morrison amplifier, such as Prince Buster used, was an object of almost iconic proportions. Although tone controls at this time were still pretty basic, how you manipulated them counted a great deal.
An operator had to be inventive and resourceful as far as added SFX went, and anything that gave a sound man the drop on his rivals would be seized upon. There's a well- worn story of an unnamed sound man going into a marine equipment dealership in Miami and trying to buy the type of loudspeaker that ocean-going liners would use to herald their approach in foggy conditions. The stakes had been raised to a point at which a particular sound's killer tune and its continued exclusivity was now a matter of paranoiac proportions.
Originally released init was unearthed by Coxsone some half a dozen years later on one of his Stateside quests for the obscure. Knowing this tune to be theirs and theirs alone, the crowd would respond in an appropriately boisterous manner.
To spin it at a sound clash was to get up in any other operator's face and, at the very least, question his abilities. To break this stranglehold understandably became something of an obsession, but the only way to do anything about it was to get hold of a copy. Prince Buster, working for Downbeat at the time, was party to the drama's climax. It was likely that one of Coxsone's men who knew what the record was really called had told him, and after several trips to America he bought a copy.
When Duke came back from that successful trip he put the word out that he had that and several other Downbeat specials — tunes unique to Coxsone. He planned a special dance, at which he said he would bury Coxsone because he was going to play all these tunes, but before he did, to lead up to the big event, he set up his sound system on the street outside his Treasure Isle liquor store and for about a week he played music day in day out.
Right through the night, until that Monday night when the dance was going to be. People come in from all over the country and pitch tent, waiting there until Monday night happen. Coxsone was very very worried.
But I went anyway. And they still dread me inna sense. So I ask Duke to put the tune on the sound that was playing out there and he just laugh again. The man have the tune. I told him if he didn't go he was finished. We went up there — Jubilee Hall Gardens — at about seven o'clock. The dance is packed from early and they have a lot of green bush, cut off tree limbs, leaning up at the side of the gate for when Duke plays the tune and people will run up and down waving them.
All of Duke Reid's top men were at the gate, and they just let us in — they don't want no problem there because they're sure they're going to destroy Coxsone tonight.
Buhk and Coxsone! After a while Coxsone wanted to go, but I wouldn't let him. We had to wait until they play the tune because any time they play it and we're there the effect will die right away there, but if we'd gone it would go wide. I was at the counter with Coxsone, he have a glass in him hand, he drop it and just collapse, sliding down the bar.
I had to brace him against the bar, then get Phantom to give me a hand. The psychological impact had knocked him out. Nobody never hit him. When that happen, you know that tomorrow morning those tune'll be selling in every fried-fish shop. All we could do was wait it out until they stop playing his exclusive tunes, then we went up to where Tom was playing for the rest of the night.
The economic aspect was important — after all, how much was ego worth in fiscal terms when rivals could rock their houses just as wildly with equally singular tunes for a fraction of importers' outlay? But the key was the feelgood factor: at last faced with performers they had a real empathy with, crowds embraced records made by local artists with added vigour.
Derrick Harriott remembers how this worked, and in doing so provides a further insight into the spirit of competition between Dodd and Reid. This was some time in We sold the slate to Thunderbird Disco, a sound from the Maxfield Avenue area, Album) although it was only Claudie playing piano and me singing it mash the place up on a Friday afternoon after-work kinda session.
It became such a hit on that sound that frequently the operator would have to lick it back ten times in a row before the people let him take it off. There was a time when it was that one record alone could draw a crowd! One way they'd try to stay ahead of their opposition was to send their scouts round to all the little sound systems — and there were a lot in Kingston at that time — to check out what tunes were going down best then buying them up. And the only original tunes the little guys would have were the tunes made by Jamaican guys like Claudie and me.
They'd make offers no small operator could afford to turn down. All the big systems used to do it. For a good little while Coxsone was mashing up the place with our tune. Coxsone was vexed! I was told he wanted to know so bad how Duke got the record that he pulled a gun on him right there, and Duke pull one back. There was a big fuss that night, which might have got out of hand if the dance hadn't been situated next to the police station.
I was told later that one of Coxsone's men had been bribed to take the record and lend it to Duke Reid to make a dub plate from it. As if determined to make up for lost time, they hurled themselves into sponsoring their own recording sessions. Ltd on Marcus Garvey Drive. Following on from the purely business-orientated system set in place by the likes of Motta and the Khouris, creative types like Duke Reid established a structure that remained at the core of the Jamaican music industry for years to come.
Importantly, it was ownership of that particular recording that counted, not ownership of the material it featured. Once Jamaican music went international in the s and before the country's copyright laws were applied to music in the s, this system was a music publisher's nightmare, as so many songs were versioned re- recorded any number of times, and in each case any royalty claims rested with whoever had charge, physically, of a certain set of master tapes.
A lot of lawyers are still getting very fat. Now, two years later, he wanted to cut it again, this time with a more sophisticated instrumentation, and would mash up the crowd once more with this new version of an old favourite. Yet another example of exclusivity being more important than up-to-the-minuteness. Clement Dodd and Prince Buster had followed Reid into the studio.
Buster's sessions were lower key, but, as time was soon to tell, they were by far the most experimental. Originally, the Big Three and the many other sound-men-turned- record-producers were cutting discs exclusively for their own sound systems. Such was the introversion of their world that it simply didn't occur to them that anyone except another sound man would be interested in these recordings.
There were examples of a commercial record trade growing out of this music mania as early asbut, typically, it was uptown types with no connection to the sound systems who were exploiting this distinctly sufferah state of affairs. The two most noteworthy were also the first two non-sound-owning producers.
West Indies Records Limited label. Blackwell had arrived at ghetto music after getting stranded on a reef, falling unconscious and being rescued by a group of Rasta fishermen, who tended to his sunburn and dehydration. This was a time when white people's apprehension at the sight of dreadlocks would be almost a given — it wasn't unusual for upper-and middle-class Jamaican parents of all races to scare their children with talk of Rasta as the bogey man — but the incident convinced the twenty-year-old Blackwell that they were nothing to be afraid of.
Although for his first recordings he used a white Canadian band to back Laurel Aitken, who sounded as American as possible, that is exactly the sort of US-wannabe style which was doing so well on the sound systems. Edward Seaga, who was of Syrian descent, had a genuine interest in black Jamaican culture through his post-graduate study of the barely- evolved-from-the-original African religion Pocomania and its music, which was known as Kuminia.
In he recorded an album of historically indigenous black Jamaican music. For several years this up- and-coming politico wanted to present the ghetto folk with the opportunity to make music, and as his agenda changed this CV did him no harm at all, as the crowded downtown constituencies held a lot of votes and so were proving increasingly important come election time. It was taken as read that the best way to reach the people was with the right beat, but as a record producer with his office and record label based at Cho Co Mo Lawn he was right in there with the artists, the studio owners and the sound-system operators.
That, in turn, would put him in with just about anybody else who counted. Edward Seaga had little obvious involvement with music after the mids Album) he sold W. Seaga had built a strong powerbase for himself in the Jamaican Labour Party as he gained an enormous reputation by holding the constituency of West Kingston since — it was an area so volatile that candidates weren't expected to last, and few wanted to because of its manifest social problems.
Seaga's clout, as he became entrenched in the impenetrable ghetto neighbourhood, was such that he became leader of the JLP in and Prime Minister in Whatever their underlying motivations, it's unlikely that such big shots would have come near ghetto music unless they were certain that a payday was involved.
But in spite of the evidence that music could earn on a grand scale, the black Jamaican psyche is such that it's understandable that Coxsone burst out laughing when, insomebody casually mentioned to him that his recordings had a value way beyond the Downbeat sound system.
To his enormous credit, he was open-minded enough to allow himself to be talked into having a couple of hundred copies of whatever was his current hot property pressed up to pass on to this apparent entrepreneur. They sold out in a matter of days. No mean feat considering that, at the time, there were very few dedicated record shops and even fewer that would have bothered with indigenous product.
The off- loading of product in this way immediately set a method for Jamaican record sales that endured long after every producer who'd had so much as a minor hit established his own shop — it still survives, in fact — in which a sales force armed with stout shoes, suitcase or a holdall and boundless enthusiasm was as vital as your bass-line. The notion of limited should be taken with a pinch of salt here, as although that was how the records for sale would be introduced, pressings were usually only ever limited to how many the sound man could sell.
And sell they did: to nightclub owners, to other sound men, to jukebox companies and lastly, but by no means leastly, to the general public. Such was the relative prosperity of a significant number of the Jamaican working classes by the end of the s that imported electrical consumer goods had crept into a considerable percentage of homes.
The centrepiece of appropriate status in any made-it-out-of-Jones-Town family's front room was a substantial, freestanding polished hardwood Philips radiogram. This was a top-shelf imported item, but less-expensive mass-produced record players were making inroads downtown. And all gramophone owners were equally eager for something to play. A solid gold commercial opportunity. Immediately, Coxsone started the All Stars and Worldisc record labels, and began block-booking recording sessions to meet the public demand for product.
Likewise Prince Buster who, informed the Voice of the People record label to complement his sound system, and Duke Reid with the Treasure Isle imprint. Maybe he was earning enough from dances and his liquor retail business; or maybe he couldn't see further than how things had been up until then and didn't view selling records as being in any way beneficial to his existing business; or perhaps he just didn't think it would catch on.
Back then nobody seemed to be able to explain why the Duke refused to take it seriously, but while he didn't, tiny record labels sprang up all over town. He is frequently painted as a sort of uptown robber baron exploiting an underclass who just wanted to make music, but if it hadn't been for Khouri, his brother Richard and Federal, which was now a music factory with everything from recording to label printing to high-capacity presses except mastering, which he could organize for you in the same building, this new industry would probably have been stillborn.
Ken Khouri was always going to be a central figure: anyone who had a tune in his head could come to Ken to record it on acetate, then either come back with a master or wait for Federal to get one, and get pressed up whatever he thought he could sell. But more than this, he was the one vital ingredient in the record business's passage of power from types like Seaga and Blackwell to Buster and Dodd.
Unlike his initial rivals, he actively courted the sound men, going to find them at the lawns, cutting affordable deals with them and allowing initial pressings on to the streets to be paid for out of the ensuing revenue. Even the less creditworthy customers — the artists taking a gamble on recording themselves or one-man operations — were given a chance, as payment would be made after discs were cut, and if they couldn't pay for all their slates or the entire consignment of records, Khouri would hold back safely what they couldn't afford until they could.
What seems to have been misread was his no-nonsense manner of collecting money: he sat at a desk in the doorway to his premises wearing a kind of bib with deep pockets around his neck; he'd brusquely demand the agreed rate, slap his ring'd hand down on the surface to signify a done deal and stuff the cash into his bib.
He didn't see the need to barter because he knew his prices were the most reasonable and he gave short shrift to singers or producers attempting to pull a fast one.
While this may have ruffled a few self-inflated artistic feathers, Khouri was a businessman, not a charity — just like the singers who then hoped to sell their records — and the only way to do business in the ghetto was to be as tough as the toughest. But a few bruised egos were a small price to pay for Ken Khouri's making so much music possible, as more than one veteran producer has testified. Mastering discs was the real key to record manufacture, though.
While Khouri made regular trips to Miami to get mastering done for his clients — at a charge — usually friends or migrants would carry them to New York, New Orleans, Florida or the UK, which meant that, although the actual transit cost nothing, they were at the mercy of the overseas facilities who saw no reason to charge the Jamaicans anything less than premium rate.
Plus there was the real possibility of loss or damage: Coxsone maintains that his first-ever commercially minded session, with a band led by saxophone colossus Roland Alphonso, disappeared somewhere between the mastering rooms in New York and Kingston harbour. In latethough, Caribbean Records started up, owned by the Tawari family, who also owned the Regal theatre. The Tawaris understood the embryonic Jamaican music scene through the talent shows held there and, more than that, they weren't operating a recording studio but offering specialist mastering and pressing facilities.
They knew what was required and how the volume of sales was there to make it pay provided they struck the right deals. Suddenly the price of manufacturing records fell by nearly three-quarters, and sound men from all over town tucked their latest killer tune under their arms and queued up outside Caribbean Records, hoping to cash in.
And so the Jamaican music business as we know it today was in place. Very profitably too, meaning that, for the first time since being brought over on the slave ships, Jamaica's black population was really contributing to their own country. All that was needed to complete the picture was some Jamaican music. Music the vast majority of its population could call its own. Music that reflected the creeping national euphoria as the island prospered and all talk was of independence within the next few years.
Music that acknowledged the myriad influences stamped on Jamaican culture. But, most of all, music that beat with the very soul of downtown Kingston. Sufferahs' music. A true expression of Jamaican blackness. It was bound to happen, too. The black Jamaican tradition is oral, thus scientific precision will be noticeable only by its absence.
The telling will always be as important as the tale itself, and so it would be going against the general spirit of things to let such a minor detail as factual accuracy stand in the way of a good yarn.
Talk to any number of the major players from the Jamaican music scene of four decades ago and you'll come away with the same number of entirely independent accounts of how the word came about. It's the same with the music itself.
And it would be unnecessarily harsh to accuse anybody of lying. Anyway, such exactness would be nigh impossible to prove, as such was the nature of the s Kingston music scene that as soon as three people had heard something at least two of them would have copied it. Within as many days. But to attach much importance to the exact identification of whoever it was thought up either ska or its name is rather to miss the significance of what happened back then. As Bruce Lee said in Enter the Dragon, it would be like staring so intently at the finger, you miss the glory of whatever it's pointing at.
What matters is that so many people felt so involved that they honestly believe they can assume responsibility. This was a cultural movement. A wave of players, producers and performers between them created enough momentum to bring about change for a number of reasons, only some of which were strictly musical.
Ska was simply inevitable. And how it happened, could only have happened in Jamaica. At this point in time — or so — the music industry was genuinely a village, as in spite of the well-publicized competition between producers and session-sponsors, their apparently exclusive, sound-shaping studio bands were unique in name only.
Among the top two or three dozen musicians — i. There could be no secrets, because they all had a hand in how everything was done, making contributions, jointly thrashing out ideas or helping to interpret a colleague's innovation. It generated a considerable sense of oneness among this pool of players, and, as so many were steeped in jazz traditions that perpetually seek to push forward, a very real crusade was gathering momentum.
This was a hotbed of ghetto creativity seeking to come up with a form they could claim ownership of — both geographically and generationally — and virtually everybody who was singing, producing or playing music in West Kingston at the end of the fifties was involved. What finally emerged was a new rhythm to match the new mood of a very upbeat Jamaica. As a final step towards completely cutting its colonial ties the island had become fully self-governing inand now cultural independence from the USA was every bit as important as political independence from the UK.
A change had to come. But in spite of ska being a bona-fide collective effort, and the whole process having something of a karmic quality, it would be very wrong to assume it happened by accident. Y'know, positive and entirely deliberate contributions by exceptionally gifted individuals. And after this, as the new decade dawned, there really was no looking back. Seaga was also in a unique position as far as Jamaica's music industry went.
Much of W. Plus he was based in the heart of the ghetto, where he promoted dances and concerts, hired his acts out and supplied slates to sound systems, and so had to know what made the sufferahs tick.
And, as displayed in his post-graduate anthropology studies, he had a yen for genuine Jamaican art. Seaga knew the runnings from a commercial, popular and cultural point of view — it was only a matter of time before all of this came together in the recording studio. But what the producer had done to it was to apply a mento element in changing the emphasis of the piano's shuffle by gently marking out the off-beat with a guitar chord, in much the same way as the banjo would supply that stress in mento.
True, it was an entirely subtle customizing, but shifting the accent in this manner was enough to make the music stand out in a way that nearly all Jamaicans could identify as theirs. The island's record-pressing plants went into overdrive as the tune exploded, going on to sell over 25, copies.
Clearly there was a demand for a more indigenous and original sound. Clement Dodd seemed to think so, too. In fact, he'd been having such thoughts for quite a while as he was well aware that the records that got the best reception at his dances were the ones by singers who sounded Jamaican, as opposed to the wannabe-Yankees.
In the studio he'd sought to encourage any such vocalizing, but at this point he wanted to take things further by putting greater distance between homegrown and imported music. He called a meeting with Ernie Ranglin, the acclaimed guitarist and musical arranger for the majority of Coxsone productions, and bass player Cluett Johnson.
It was a surprisingly formal summons, on a Sunday morning in the back room of the Dodd family's liquor store on the corner of Beeston Street and Love Lane. Ranglin remembers it as the culmination of the ideas the sound man had been playing around with for several months. He wanted to stick with that sound, but to do it with our Jamaican feeling. His philosophy was that there's the same four beats in the bar and it just depends on what we do with them.
He was well aware, at that time, that was what the ghetto people wanted, and while of course he was looking for new music to keep his sound system on top, his own sense of national pride played a part in what he was trying to do then.
Then the guitar came in to stress it even more, and this off-beat became the focus of all Jamaican music that followed on after it. As well as being a sound-system favourite, Gordon was a frequent performer on the Kingston concert circuit and it's most unlikely the producer would have been unaware of either his popularity or his apparent uniqueness.
In fact, as it's genuinely sound-system stuff, as opposed to so many retrospectives that are put together with a contemporary view of what ska ought to be, it's a pretty good example of how the majority of Jamaican records presented themselves. The tracks are also awash with jazz references, figures and ideas that would have come not only from the keen jazz fan Coxsone, but also from the players themselves, as many grew up playing jazz and looked upon recording as another chance to show off.
Although the tunes are manifestly hybrids of various American forms, they are also very obviously Jamaican and moving in a certain direction — in fact the title Destiny could be applied to the music in general. Ernie Ranglin vividly remembers the effect this change of direction had on him and the other musicians.
We just felt like we were doing a job. Back then if a man ask you to come down the studio and here's two shilling fi play a song, you did it. We were musicians and we just wanted to play the next chorus right, play the next phrase, to make the singers and the producers happy. EAN Aantal stuks in verpakking 3 platen.
Taal Engels. Overige kenmerken Box set Nee. Compilatie Nee. Gezongen taal Engels. Soort verpakking Amaray. Verpakking breedte mm. Verpakking hoogte 15 mm. Verpakking lengte mm. Verschijningsjaar Select-bezorgopties Gratis verzending. Toon meer Toon minder. Reviews Schrijf een review Schrijf een review. Sorteer op: Meest behulpzame Meeste sterren Minste sterren Nieuwste.
Geschreven bij A Treat Of New Beat en nu dus de rest nog, touched is gewoon briljant te noemen en ook het werk van the thought overstijgd dit album. Bart Scholtus Nieuw-Vennep 21 mei
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